For the first time, the word RAID appears in 1987, in a Berkeley University article.
RAID stands for "Redundant Array of Independent Disks".
Creating a RAID system allows to reach the following goals :
There's 2 main types of RAID systems :
So, there's secure RAID systems, such as RAID 1, RAID 5 and RAID 6. And insecure RAID systems such as JBOD and RAID 0. There can be also combined RAID systems that are a concatenation of 2 different types of RAID, such as RAID 1+0, RAID 0+1 or RAID 0+5.
The RAID parameters can be managed either with a software installed on the OS (Windows, Linux, Mac OS), or with a hardware component, such as the motherboard or even better, a dedicated RAID controller.